Ghana Analysis

Situation of women in the relation between education and job

The statistics about the enrollment in education and labor force participation showed that there is the relation between female’s level of education and the employment situation. On the one hand, the number of females who participate in labor force are increasing with they have more chances to receive education, especially in primary and secondary level. On the other hand, women participate less in tertiary education so their choices of occupation are limited.

Table 1

According to the Ghana Living Standard Survey 2008, the table 1 showed the percentage of male and female engages in different occupations in Ghana. In general, more males than females are professional workers, such as legislators and managers, professionals, and technicians and associate professionals. These kinds of job require high level of education, however, there are few women can take part in because most of them do not receive tertiary education. Therefore, women usually participate in some jobs which require relatively low educational level and working skill, such as clerks, service workers and elementary occupations. In other words, education makes more females participate in labor force, but the level of education limits their opportunity to become professional.

Additionally, the nature of job is one of the factors which may influence the relation between education and job. Some of the occupations require more physical need, such as plant operators, and agriculture and fishery worker, male therefore participate more in these jobs. In the same way, female may play the leading role in some occupations, service and sales workers, for example. It indicated that the factor of job’s nature will influence female’s job opportunity also, although the factor of education is important.
Table 2

In recent years, the issue of gender inequality in both education and occupation seems improving. Other than the positive relation between females’ education and job opportunity, females’ earnings can reflect that the gender gap is narrowing also. Table 2 revealed how much male and female can earn hourly according to their occupation. Overall, Ghanaian women’s wage are lesser than men, but women can earn more in some occupations such as clerks and craft workers. Even though women and men have the same level of education and work in the same sort of job, the wage they earn is different. It implied that gender inequality is existent slightly in Ghana nowadays.
Base on the above analysis, females now have more opportunity to engage in labor force as males with their better educational level, though their wage is not equal to males sometime. It means there is the connection, although not very strong, between education and job. On the other hand, because of the problem of gender inequality, there are some other factors or social norms which may intervene the situation of female in the relation between education and job.

In Ghana, the majority of women participate less in science and technology because the culture and social attitude of people view that only men can engage in these areas rather than women. In some universities, some of the female students are therefore not allow studying relevant subjects such as science, technology and engineering. It believed that Ghanaian females do not have chance to learn science and technology is one of the major reasons why only few women can become professional workers.

Table 3 Note: Blue--Female; White--Male
In addition, the society thinks that women should take the motherhood responsibility rather than participate in labor force. Even though the educational level of females is higher than before, their working ability will still be queried sometimes by the community. For example, Ghanaian women participate less in political activities. Table 3 showed the female-to-male ratio in Ghana’s political empowerment. Only a few of women allow take part in the parliament and no female can be a head of state also. It suggested that the society still think that women is disability, compare with men.

In conclusion, there is almost no gender gap in labor force participation in Ghana as the female-to-male ratio is 0.99 (1=equality). This is because females nowadays receive better education than before so there is positive relation between education and job. However, this does not mean the problem of gender inequality disappeared in Ghana. The factors of unequal wage, few opportunity of learning both science and technology, social norms, and no political power reflected that women are still discriminated. But the problem is improving overall.

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