Overall Analysis

Does better access to education mean improve the labor force participation for women?

After comparing the women situation of 7 countries, we discovered that better access to education mean more job opportunities for women. However, women still lag far behind men in labor force participation. All countries showed that the labor force participation of women is lower than men. Therefore, the transition from school to work is critical for building on the achievements in women’s education and sustaining them in later stages of life.

Does higher educational level mean better nature of job for women?

Women participate more in education give them more chances to engage in labor force, but it cannot guarantee women can have better nature of job. Base on the case of Ghana, Philippines, Cuba and Brazil, we find that women can engage in high position of job if they have high educational level.

In Ghana, the number of females’ enrollment in education is increasing substantially since 2006. Women usually participate more in primary and secondary education, however, they participate less in tertiary education as there is just 4% of Ghanaian female. In Philippines, considerable number of females can receive primary, secondary and even tertiary education. What is more, women engage more in education than men. For example, there is 32% of female and 26% of male study the tertiary education. In Cuba and Brazil, lots of women, even more than men, received tertiary education in general. In 2010, there is 149% and 39% of Cuban women and Brazilian women have tertiary level of education. In addition, the percentage of both Cuban and Brazilian female participate in the primary and secondary education is up to around 85%.

Flag-Pins-Brazil-Cuba.jpgThe increasing number of women engages in labor force because of their better education than before. Ghana, for example, the female-to-male ratio of the labor force participation is 0.99 which means female and male have the equal chance to participate in labor force. However, there is only few of Ghanaian women can engage in high post of job. In 2010, there is 32% of female become senior officials and managers and no female can become professional workers. But on the other hand, lots of women in Philippines, Cuba and Brazil can become professional in recent years. For example, there is 60% and 40% of female and male respectively are the professional. Therefore, it is true that higher educational level allow women participate in better nature of job.

Are there any hidden causes affecting the job? What should be done?

Norms and Traditions
Workplace equality is still a myth. Gender inequality is often deeply rooted in norms and traditions that always influence our expectations, values, and behaviors. Cultural stereotyping often makes women responsible for care and housework do not allow them the time to pursue legal services, especially when they must travel long distances to access them. Norms for acceptable behavior and safety can also constrain women’s mobility and their ability to access justice services.
To solve this problem, the government and more organizations should involve in educating the people that boys and girls are equal. The campaign mentioned in Brazil could be a reference to other countries.
Lack of political empowermentOverall, women have less opportunities and voices on decision making of policies and their own rights. By looking at the 7 countries political empowerment section, the ratio of women to men in minister-level positions in parliamentary positions is low. To certain extent, the low ratio is influenced by the social norms.
Therefore, given opportunities to women to participate in the government is needed. Women may innovate some new and unique ideas which could benefit the whole society. Research has shown that women are likely to invest a larger proportion of their household income than men would in the education and health of their children.
Impact on government policy
China and Cuba showed that the government policy has a great influence on women. China- one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 for limiting the huge population. This policy indeed affected the job opportunities of women as we find that many parents are chosen to have son rather than daughter. To limit the population of female-born is equal to limit women’s job opportunities, as the remaining of huge population of male are the competitors of female. In addition, China is having a long history of traditional value- patriarchal, so it is totally strengthen the poor situation of China.

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