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Monday, November 7

  1. page Overall Analysis edited ... In Ghana, the number of females’ enrollment in education is increasing substantially since 200…
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    In Ghana, the number of females’ enrollment in education is increasing substantially since 2006. Women usually participate more in primary and secondary education, however, they participate less in tertiary education as there is just 4% of Ghanaian female. In Philippines, considerable number of females can receive primary, secondary and even tertiary education. What is more, women engage more in education than men. For example, there is 32% of female and 26% of male study the tertiary education. In Cuba and Brazil, lots of women, even more than men, received tertiary education in general. In 2010, there is 149% and 39% of Cuban women and Brazilian women have tertiary level of education. In addition, the percentage of both Cuban and Brazilian female participate in the primary and secondary education is up to around 85%.
    {Flag-Pins-Brazil-Cuba.jpg} The increasing number of women engages in labor force because of their better education than before. Ghana, for example, the female-to-male ratio of the labor force participation is 0.99 which means female and male have the equal chance to participate in labor force. However, there is only few of Ghanaian women can engage in high post of job. In 2010, there is 32% of female become senior officials and managers and no female can become professional workers. But on the other hand, lots of women in Philippines, Cuba and Brazil can become professional in recent years. For example, there is 60% and 40% of female and male respectively are the professional. Therefore, it is true that higher educational level allow women participate in better nature of job.
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    the job? What should be done?
    Norms and Traditions
    Workplace equality is still a myth. Gender inequality is often deeply rooted in norms and traditions that always influence our expectations, values, and behaviors. Cultural stereotyping often makes women responsible for care and housework do not allow them the time to pursue legal services, especially when they must travel long distances to access them. Norms for acceptable behavior and safety can also constrain women’s mobility and their ability to access justice services.
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    this problem, education the government and more organizations should involve in educating the people that boys and girls are equal. The campaign mentioned in Brazil could be a reference to other countries.
    Lack of political empowermentOverall, women have less opportunities and voices on decision making of policies and their own rights. By looking at the 7 countries political empowerment section, the ratio of women to men in minister-level positions in parliamentary positions is low. To certain extent, the low ratio is influenced by the social norms.
    Also,Therefore, given opportunities
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    the government is needed. Women may innovate
    Impact on government policy
    China and Cuba showed that the government policy has a great influence on women. China- one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 for limiting the huge population. This policy indeed affected the job opportunities of women as we find that many parents are chosen to have son rather than daughter. To limit the population of female-born is equal to limit women’s job opportunities, as the remaining of huge population of male are the competitors of female. In addition, China is having a long history of traditional value- patriarchal, so it is totally strengthen the poor situation of China.
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  2. page Sierra Leone Analysis edited ... Generally speaking, Sierra Leone has suffered from severe gender inequality in both education …
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    Generally speaking, Sierra Leone has suffered from severe gender inequality in both education and employment aspects. As the description part showed how big differences in male and female participation within education and job, even though both of these two aspects were gradually increased, there are still a big problem in gender inequality. According to government‘s policy making, rising of women’s participation of primary, secondary and tertiary level, which also leading to the increasing labor force of women. However, in Sierra Leone, the situation seems to be difference, even though the education has gradually been raised, participation of job in women has still remained unchanged. There are other factors affected the participation of women, such as civil war, the corrupted government and the norms of society.
    Because I am a girl: In the shadow of war (Sierra Leone)
    Reasons for lackinglow participation of
    Civil War
    One of the reasons in Sierra Leone still suffered from severe gender inequality is the effect of civil war. During the 1991 to 2002 civil war, led people in Sierra Leone faced an unforgettable memory, especially women. According to Africa Renewal, “Sexual violence, an 'invisible war crime' Sierra Leone Truth Commission condemns abuse, discrimination” written by Nirit Ben-Ari and Ernest Harsch, the author pointed out women were being raped and suffered from violence during the war. After being raped, women couldn’t find job because of discrimination by the society. According to IRIN, “SIERRA LEONE: Impunity in rape cases thrives”22 June 2010, “Rape was rampant during the 1991-2002 civil war and has continued in peacetime. In 2007 the government passed legislation that made violent or sexual abuse of women – including within marriage – a criminal act, but law enforcement and social services organizations struggle to implement the law.” Civil war made women in Sierra Leone lost their job opportunities and they still lived in darkness without job and support for the government.
    {_46749839_untitled-53.jpg}
    Corruption of Government & Social Norms
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    was directly affectaffecting their participation
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  3. page Overall Analysis edited ... After comparing the women situation of 7 countries, we discovered that better access to educat…
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    After comparing the women situation of 7 countries, we discovered that better access to education mean more job opportunities for women. However, women still lag far behind men in labor force participation. All countries showed that the labor force participation of women is lower than men. Therefore, the transition from school to work is critical for building on the achievements in women’s education and sustaining them in later stages of life.
    Does higher educational level mean better nature of job for women?
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    educational level.
    {Flag-Pins-Ghana-Philippines.jpg}
    In Ghana, the number of females’ enrollment in education is increasing substantially since 2006. Women usually participate more in primary and secondary education, however, they participate less in tertiary education as there is just 4% of Ghanaian female. In Philippines, considerable number of females can receive primary, secondary and even tertiary education. What is more, women engage more in education than men. For example, there is 32% of female and 26% of male study the tertiary education. In Cuba and Brazil, lots of women, even more than men, received tertiary education in general. In 2010, there is 149% and 39% of Cuban women and Brazilian women have tertiary level of education. In addition, the percentage of both Cuban and Brazilian female participate in the primary and secondary education is up to around 85%.
    ...
    Norms and Traditions
    Workplace equality is still a myth. Gender inequality is often deeply rooted in norms and traditions that always influence our expectations, values, and behaviors. Cultural stereotyping often makes women responsible for care and housework do not allow them the time to pursue legal services, especially when they must travel long distances to access them. Norms for acceptable behavior and safety can also constrain women’s mobility and their ability to access justice services.
    To solve this problem, education
    Lack of political empowermentOverall, women have less opportunities and voices on decision making of policies and their own rights. By looking at the 7 countries political empowerment section, the ratio of women to men in minister-level positions in parliamentary positions is low. To certain extent, the low ratio is influenced by the social norms.
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    their children.
    Impact on government policy
    China and Cuba showed that the government policy has a great influence on women. China- one child policy was established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 for limiting the huge population. This policy indeed affected the job opportunities of women as we find that many parents are chosen to have son rather than daughter. To limit the population of female-born is equal to limit women’s job opportunities, as the remaining of huge population of male are the competitors of female. In addition, China is having a long history of traditional value- patriarchal, so it is totally strengthen the poor situation of China.
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    7:54 am
  4. page Ghana Analysis edited Ghana Analysis Situation of women in the relation between education and job ... about the enro…
    Ghana Analysis
    Situation of women in the relation between education and job
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    about the enrolmentenrollment in education
    {occupation.png} Table 1
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    and female engageengages in different
    Additionally, the nature of job is one of the factors which may influence the relation between education and job. Some of the occupations require more physical need, such as plant operators, and agriculture and fishery worker, male therefore participate more in these jobs. In the same way, female may play the leading role in some occupations, service and sales workers, for example. It indicated that the factor of job’s nature will influence female’s job opportunity also, although the factor of education is important.
    {hourly_earnings.png} Table 2
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    Base on the above analysis, females now have more opportunity to engage in labor force as males with their better educational level, though their wage is not equal to males sometime. It means there is the connection, although not very strong, between education and job. On the other hand, because of the problem of gender inequality, there are some other factors or social norms which may intervene the situation of female in the relation between education and job.
    In Ghana, the majority of women participate less in science and technology because the culture and social attitude of people view that only men can engage in these areas rather than women. In some universities, some of the female students are therefore not allow studying relevant subjects such as science, technology and engineering. It believed that Ghanaian females do not have chance to learn science and technology is one of the major reasons why only few women can become professional workers.
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    Note: Blue--Female; White--Male
    In
    White--MaleIn addition, the
    In conclusion, there is almost no gender gap in labor force participation in Ghana as the female-to-male ratio is 0.99 (1=equality). This is because females nowadays receive better education than before so there is positive relation between education and job. However, this does not mean the problem of gender inequality disappeared in Ghana. The factors of unequal wage, few opportunity of learning both science and technology, social norms, and no political power reflected that women are still discriminated. But the problem is improving overall.
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  5. page Sierra Leone edited ... Political history During 1991-2002, a brutal civil war broke out between the National Patriot…
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    Political history
    During 1991-2002, a brutal civil war broke out between the National Patriotic Front of Liberia led by Charles Taylor and the Revolutionary United Frontfurled by former Sierra Leonean army corporal Foday Saybana Sankoh. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah elected president on February in 1996 that signed a new peace in Sierra Leone. After Kabbah ended up his political career, Ernest Bai Koroma elected the presidentin 2007; He promised not tolerate to corruption and would strike at the major challenges of Sierra Leone.
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    current situation
    Following ten years long civil war, citizens especially women faced many challenges; All these show us how serve is the gender inequality in Sierra Leone, not only in social level but also in personal level.
    Women were subjected to rape and sexual slavery during the civil war.
    Women always suffered from social discrimination and domestic violence;
    nearNear 90% of
    Women still have little right in society and family such as no right to inherit property,
    Women cannot make a decision without their husband’s permission.
    Resource:http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/indicators/49806.html
    Statistics
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  6. page Ghana Statistics edited Ghana Statistics- Women Current Situation ... is raising frome from 80th in Education Attain…
    Ghana Statistics- Women Current Situation
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    is raising fromefrom 80th in
    Education Attainment
    {education.png} Note: Blue--Female; White--Male
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    Employment Situation and Job Opportunity
    {Labour_force.png} Note: Blue--Female; White--MaleIn 2010, female adult's unemployment rate is 11% while male adult's unemployment rate is 10%. For the labor force participation, the gender gap is narrow, which means both female and male’s access to labor market are almost the same. There is 75% and 76% of female and male engage in labor force so the ratio is 0.99 in the year of 2010.
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    the other hand,therehand ,there are nearly
    Analysis
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  7. page Dominican Republic Analysis edited Dominican Republic Analysis ... in finding job, job; even they Women are usually pressed by …
    Dominican Republic Analysis
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    in finding job,job; even they
    Women are usually pressed by men at workplace, restricted not to do certain jobs, limited participation in legal and political decision making in Dominican society. Women are usually supposed to be a housewife who taking cares with children and doing housework only, but not a worker in the social labor force. Dominican Republic is more likely a male chauvinism place, with unbalance power between men and women which can be seen in different aspects.
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    violence against women
    (from
    womenn(From 4:30, it
    ...
    that domestic violeceviolence decreases women
    One of the reasons is that domestic violence is a serious problem in Dominican Republic. The 2007 Demographic and Health Survey found that 30% of women had suffered from physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by their spouse or other working partners, and compare with 2002, it increased by 2%. Although the Dominican government promulgated legislation modifying the existing Penal Code to address the problem of domestic violence (the law became known as Law 24-97 on Intrafamily Violence) in January 1997, it cannot stop the cases as the new law against the long-historian "patriarchal culture" in Dominican Republic. Men in Dominican Republic is used to control the action and thought of women or even treat them by violence. This limited Dominican women’s action, and they may not able to participate in the social labor force.
    {trends_in_Domestic_Violence.jpg} Dominican Republic Demographic and Health Survey 2007
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    testing is the another factor
    News:http://www.hrw.org/news/2004/07/12/dominican-republic-women-hiv-doubly-abused
    {pregnant%20haitian%20woman.jpg}
    Things will not go well if they are being employed, gender inequality still appear in workplace. A 2002 World Bank report stated that women earned only 76% of what men earned for equivalent work (63% in rural areas). Apart from the unequal distribution of wages, women in Dominican Republic were suffered from almost a double unemployment rate over men. According the news “Dominican Republic: U.S. Trade Pact Fails Pregnant Women” on April 21, 2004, pregnancy did shuts many Dominican women out of jobs, which is a common gender discrimination among workplace, which further enhance the difficulty of women joining in the social labor force.
    News: http://www.hrw.org/news/2004/04/21/dominican-republic-us-trade-pact-fails-pregnant-women
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    in the empolymentemployment aspect are
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  8. page Overall Analysis edited ... Women participate more in education give them more chances to engage in labor force, but it ca…
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    Women participate more in education give them more chances to engage in labor force, but it cannot guarantee women can have better nature of job. Base on the case of Ghana, Philippines, Cuba and Brazil, we find that women can engage in high position of job if they have high educational level.
    {Flag-Pins-Ghana-Philippines.jpg}
    ...
    of females’ enrolmentenrollment in education
    {Flag-Pins-Brazil-Cuba.jpg} The increasing number of women engages in labor force because of their better education than before. Ghana, for example, the female-to-male ratio of the labor force participation is 0.99 which means female and male have the equal chance to participate in labor force. However, there is only few of Ghanaian women can engage in high post of job. In 2010, there is 32% of female become senior officials and managers and no female can become professional workers. But on the other hand, lots of women in Philippines, Cuba and Brazil can become professional in recent years. For example, there is 60% and 40% of female and male respectively are the professional. Therefore, it is true that higher educational level allow women participate in better nature of job.
    Are there any hidden causes affecting the job?
    Norms and Traditions
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    stereotyping often makemakes women responsible
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    political empowermentOverall, Womenwomen have less
    Also, given opportunities to women to participate in the government may innovate some new and unique ideas which could benefit the whole society. Research has shown that women are likely to invest a larger proportion of their household income than men would in the education and health of their children.
    Impact on government policy
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  9. page Brazil edited ... Brazil is one of the most unequal nations in the world, although it is one of the wealthiest. …
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    Brazil is one of the most unequal nations in the world, although it is one of the wealthiest. Brazil is the largest country in Latin America. It is the 5th largest country in the world with about 195 million inhabitants which is just smaller than Canada, Russia, US and China. Besides, Brazil is the 7th largest economy and it is one of the BRIC countries at a newly advanced economic development stage. Also, the World Bank ranks the Brazilian economy among the 10 richest in the world. However, the income inequality and poverty rate still remains high although the government has put great effort to solve the problem.
    Political history
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    in 1985.
    Women current situation
    Gender inequality reduced but still persists in Brazil. Many women in Brazil have accessed to quality education. Brazilian women are generally more educated, having higher years of schooling than men. However, they turn to prostitution or low paying, obtuse work to support themselves and their families. These girls have had few positive female role models in their lives to show them that there is more out there than marriage and bearing children. Entirely too many woman of Brazil depend on men to support them. Too often women are left alone because her husband abandons her or he dies. These women are often unprepared to feed their children and care for their home.
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